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This website for under 18's from Roche Diabetes Care contains some great interactive tools to help you and your family learn more about diabetes and encourage you to get more involved.

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References

1 American Diabetes Association: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(Suppl 1): S11-S61.

2 Rodbard HW, Blonde L, Braithwaite SS, Brett EM, Cobin RH, Handelsman Y, Hellman R, Jellinger PS, Jovanovic LG, Levy P, Mechanick JI, Zangeneh F, AACE Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Practice Guidelines Task Force. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract. 2007; 13(Suppl 1): 3-68.

3 Hirsch IB, Brownlee M. Should minimal blood glucose variability become the gold standard of glycaemic control? J Diabetes Complications. 2005; 19: 178-181.

4 Monnier L, Mas E, Ginet C, Michel F, Villon L, Cristol JP, Colette C. Activation of oxidative stress by acute glucose fluctuations compared with sustained chronic hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2006; 295(14): 1681-1687.

5 Ceriello A, Esposito K, Piconi L, Ihnat MA, Thorpe JE, Testa R, Boemi M, Giugliano D. Oscillating glucose is more deleterious to endothelial function and oxidative stress than mean glucose in normal and type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2008; 57(5): 1349-1354.

6 Polonsky WH, Jelsovsky A, Panzer S, Parkin CG, Wagner RS. Primary care physicians identify and act upon glycaemic abnormalities found in structured, episodic blood glucose monitoring data from non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009; 11(5): 283-291.

7 Parkin CG, Davidson JA. Value of self-monitoring blood glucose pattern analysis in improving diabetes outcomes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009; 3(3): 500-508.

8 Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Scientific Board. Consensus report of the coalition for clinical research—self-monitoring of blood glucose. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008; 2(6): 1030-1053.

9 Parkin CG. Paired testing regimens facilitate effective use of self-monitoring of blood glucose.

10 Parkin CG, Hinnen DH, Campbell RK, Geil P, Tetrick DL, Polonsky WH. Effective use of paired testing in type 2 diabetes: practical applications in clinical practice. Diabetes Educator. 2009; 35: 915-927.

11 Wentholt IME, Kulik W, Michels RPJ, Hoekstra JBL, DeVries JH. Glucose fluctuations and activation of oxidative stress in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008; 51: 183-190.

12 Monnier L, Lapinski H, Colette C. Contributions of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose increments to the overall diurnal hyperglycaemia of type 2 diabetic patients: variations with increasing levels of HbA(1c). Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(3): 881-885.

13 Temelkova-Kurktschiev TS, Koehler C, Henkel E, Leonhardt W, Fuecker K, Hanefeld M. Post challenge plasma glucose and glycaemic spikes are more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level. Diabetes Care. 2000; 23(12): 1830-1834.

14 International Diabetes Federation Guideline Development Committee. Guideline for management of post meal glucose. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2007.

15 International Diabetes Federation Clinical Guidelines Taskforce and SMBG International Working Group. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2009.

16 Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, Malone JI, Nathan DM, Peterson CM. Tests of glycemia in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(Suppl 1): S106-S108.

17 Rodbard D. Optimising display, analysis, interpretation and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data for management of patients with diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2007;1(1): 62-71.

18 Dailey G. Assessing glycaemic control with self-monitoring of blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c measurements. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007; 82(2): 229-236.

19 Pearson J, Bergenstal R. Fine-tuning control: pattern management versus supplementation: View 1: Pattern management: an essential component of effective insulin management. Diabetes Spectrum. 2001; 14(2): 75-78.

20 Derr R, Garret E, Stacy GA, Saudek CD. Is HbA1c affected by glycaemic instability? Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 2728-2733.

21 Leiter LA, Ceriello A, Davidson JA, Hanefeld M, Monnier L, Owens DR, Tajima N, Tuomilehto J, for the International Prandial Glucose Regulation (PGR) Study Group. Postprandial glucose regulation: new data and new implications. Clin Ther. 2005; 27(Suppl B): S42-S56.

22 Donahue RP, Abbott RD, Reed DM, Yano K. Post challenge glucose concentration and coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry: Honolulu Heart Program. Diabetes. 1987; 36(6): 689-692.

23 Sorkin JD, Muller DC, Fleg JL, Andres R. The relation of fasting and 2-h post challenge plasma glucose concentrations to mortality: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging with a critical review of the literature. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28(11): 2626-32.

24 Bonora E, Calcaterra F, Lombardi S, Bonfante N, Formentini G, Bonadonna RC, Muggeo M. Plasma glucose levels throughout the day and HbA1c interrelationships in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24(12): 2023-2029.

25 Gerich JE. Clinical significance, pathogenesis, and management of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163: 1306-1316.

26 Esposito K, Giugliano D, Nappo F, Marfella R, for the Campanian Postprandial Hyperglycaemia Study Group. Regression of carotid atherosclerosis by control of postprandial hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2004; 110: 214-219. Epub 2004 Jun 14.

27 Ceriello A, Quagliaro L, Piconi L, Assaloni R, Da RR, Maier A, Esposito K, Giugliano D. Effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycaemia on circulating adhesion molecules and oxidative stress generation and the possible role of simvastatin treatment. Diabetes. 2004; 53(3): 701-710.

28 Esposito K, Nappo F, Marfella R, Giugliano G, Giugliano F, Ciotola M, Quagliaro L, Ceriello A, Giugliano D. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are acutely increased in hyperglycaemia in humans: role of oxidative stress. Circulation. 2002; 106(16): 2067-2072.

29 Brohall G, Oden A, Fagerberg B. Carotid artery intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance: a systematic review. Diabet Med. 2006; 23(6): 609-616.

30 Kawano H, Motoyama T, Hirashima O, Hirai N, Miyao Y, Sakamoto T, Kugiyama K, Ogawa H, Yasue H. Hyperglycaemia rapidly suppresses flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation of brachial artery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 34(1): 146-154.

31 Williams SB, Goldfine AB, Timimi FK, Ting HH, Roddy MA, Simonson DC, Creager MA. Acute hyperglycaemia attenuates endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans in vivo. Circulation. 1998; 97(17): 1695-1701.

32 Coutinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care. 1999; 22(2): 233-240.

33 Zaccardi F, Pitocco D, Ghirlanda G. Glycaemic risk factors of diabetic vascular complications: the role of glycaemic variability. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009; 25(3): 199-207.

34 Rodbard D. Optimising display, analysis, interpretation and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) data for management of patients with diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2007; 1(1): 62-71.

35 Kovatchev BP. Is glycaemic variability important to assessing antidiabetes therapies? Curr Diab Rep. 2006; 6(5): 350-356.

36 Kovatchev B, Breton M, Clarke W. Analytical methods for the retrieval and interpretation of continuous glucose monitoring data in diabetes. Methods Enzymol. 2009; 454: 69-86.

37 Gerich JE, Odawara M, Terauchi Y. The rationale for paired pre- and postprandial self-monitoring of blood glucose; the role of glycaemic variability in micro- and macrovascular risk. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007; 23(8): 1791-1798.

38 Childs B, Laan R. Development of a novel blood glucose analysis system for episodic bG monitoring in persons with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2007; 56(Suppl 1): 427.

39 Hadley-Brown M, Hall G, Richards C, Lucas S, Karet B, Crawford E, Cackette C, Walshe K, Owens D. Structured episodic monitoring: a novel approach to SMBG in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes & Primary Care. 2008; 10: 165-172.

40 Franke D, Kocher S, Jacques K, Tshiananga T, Weber C, Neeser K, Hoang-Boehm J. Evaluation of an information management system for the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients: a prospective, observational study. Basel: Institute for Medical Informatics and Biostatistcs; 2009.

41 Farmer A, Wade A, Goyder E, Yudkin P, French D, Craven A, Holman R, Kinmonth AL, Neil A. Impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose in the management of patients with non-insulin treated diabetes: open parallel group randomised trial. BMJ. 2007; 335: 132.

42 O’Kane MJ, Bunting, B, Copeland M, Coates VE. Efficacy of self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (ESMON study): randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008; 336(7654): 1174-1177.

43 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Bethesda: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK); 2008.
Available from: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/hypoglycaemia/

44 Rajesh P, Rees A. Postprandial glycaemia and cardiovascular risk. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis. 2008;8(1):8-14.

45 Guthrie Diana W., Guthrie, Richard A. Management of Diabetes Mellitus: A Guide to the Pattern Approach. Sixth Edition. 191-192. New York 2002.

46 Blood Glucose Pattern Control: A guide for people who use insulin. 3rd Ed. Minneapolis, MN: International Diabetes Center, 2008.

 


Focused testing tools

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Download the Guide for Guidelines, a publication of the IDF Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines

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